Renaissance style and ideas were slow in penetrating England, and the Elizabethan era in the second half of the 16th century is usually regarded as the height of the English Renaissance. They were not published in any complete form until, respectively, and He delighted to dwell upon the lowest bodily functions of human nature.
Dryden, RochesterBuckinghamand Dorset dominated verse, and all were attached to the court of Charles. The latter two were both written in the late s but as private texts, with no apparent thought of publication. Donne and Hall abused men in classes; priests were worldly, lawyers greedy, courtiers obsequious, etc.
But the best historical poem is not from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Jonathan Swift would use the Hudibrastic form almost exclusively for his poetry. Chroniclers The Restoration, in its turn, bred its own chroniclers. He was at his best in satirical character-sketches, such as the brilliant portraits in this poem of Shaftesbury, as the false counselor Ahitophel, and of the Duke of Buckingham as Zimri.
The official break in literary culture caused by censorship and radically moralist standards under Cromwell's Puritan regime created a gap in literary tradition, allowing a seemingly fresh start for all forms of literature after the Restoration.
Several poets attempted to supply this void. The complexion of the finest ladies would show blotches, hairs, excrescences, and an overpowering effluvium would breathe from the pores of the skin. It gave English poetry a didactic turn and started the fashion of writing critical essays in riming couplets.
Preserved in the same manuscript with Sir Gawayne were three other poems, now generally accepted as the work of the same author, including an intricate elegiac poem, Pearl.
Subliterary genres and writers[ edit ] Along with the figures mentioned above, the Restoration period saw the beginnings of explicitly political writing and hack writing. Indeed, some of his verse that vaunts its obscenity has an aspect of nihilismas if the amoral sexual epicure were but fending off fear of oblivion.
Many of these inhabited Grub Street, and their lampoons against Pope and others of their more successful rivals called out Pope'sDunciad, or epic of the dunces, by way of retaliation.
Sir William Davenantoperator of the first playhouse opened after the Restoration, was also a playwright and an epic poet. Under a thin varnish of good breeding, the sentiments and manners were really brutal.
Their conduct of their lives provoked censure from many, but among them were poets of some distinction who drew upon the example of gentlemen-authors of the preceding generation especially Sir John SucklingAbraham Cowleyand Edmund Wallerthe last two of whom themselves survived into the Restoration and continued to write impressive verse.
The nobility who travelled with Charles II were therefore lodged for over a decade in the midst of the continent's literary scene.
Significantly, Milton began with an attempt at writing an epic on King Arthurfor that was the matter of English national founding. This is a collection of stories written in Middle English mostly in verse although some are in prosethat are presented as part of a story-telling contest by a group of pilgrims as they travel together from Southwark to the shrine of St Thomas Becket at Canterbury Cathedral.
They appeared between about and Several generations of dramatists contributed to that wealth. But his nature was not pliable enough for the drama, and he acknowledged that, in writing for the stage, he "forced his genius.
The poetry is formulaic, drawing on a common set of stock phrases and phrase patterns, applying standard epithets to various classes of characters, and depicting scenery with such recurring images as the eagle and the wolf, which wait during battles to feast on carrion, and ice and snow, which appear in the landscape to signal sorrow.
During the Interregnum, the royalist forces attached to the court of Charles I went into exile with the twenty-year-old Charles II.
Very different are the offices of Pope's fays: Edward Bysshe would include numerous quotations from her verse in his Art of English Poetry Philosophical writing[ edit ] The Restoration saw the publication of a number of significant pieces of political and philosophical writing that had been spurred by the actions of the Interregnum.
It is associated with the pan-European Renaissance that is usually regarded as beginning in Italy in the late 14th century. JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources. Restoration literature includes both Paradise Lost and the Earl of Rochester's Sodom, the sexual comedy of The Country Wife and the moral wisdom of Pilgrim's Progress.
Robinson, Fred C (), The Cambridge Companion to Old English Literature, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. Index to Primary Authors: Adams, Henry.: The Education of Henry Adams.: Aeschylus.: Agamemnon.: The Libation-Bearers.
A Web Companion to The Norton Anthology of English Literature, 8 th Edition. Explore English literature and culture with Norton Topics Online.
English literature - The Restoration: For some, the restoration of King Charles II in led many to a painful revaluation of the political hopes and millenarian expectations bred during two decades of civil war and republican government.
For others, it excited the desire to celebrate kingship and even to turn the events of the new reign into signs of a. The Death and Resurrection of a Coherent Literature Curriculum is a timely and measured study of a problem that only seems to get worse.
Reading scores for high school students are flat since the early s and down since the early s.English literature in the restoration age